Our Work


  • Anwyl-Irvine, A. L., Armstrong, T., & Dalmaijer, E. S. (invited resubmission). MouseView.js: Reliable and valid attention tracking in web-based experiments using a cursor-directed aperture. Preprint
  • Dalmaijer, E. S. & Armstrong, T. (under review). The human behavioural immune system is a product of cultural evolution. Preprint. 

* Whitman College student/alum co-author


  • Armstrong, T., *Wilbanks, D., *Leong, D., & Hsu, K. (in press). Beyond vernacular: Measurement solutions for the lexical fallacy in disgust research. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. Postprint
  • Nord, C.L., Dalmaijer, E.S., Armstrong, T., Baker, K., & Dalgleish, T.  (2021). A causal role for gastric rhythm in human disgust avoidance. Current Biology, 31, 629-634
  • Dalmaijer, E. S., *Lee, A., *Leiter, R., *Brown, Z., & Armstrong, T. (2021). Forever yuck: Oculomotor avoidance of disgusting stimuli resists habituation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance online publication. OSF  Postprint
  • Armstrong, T., *Federman, S., *Crabtree, O., *Hampson, K., & Olatunji, B. O. (2021). Anxiety sensitivity is inked to fear learning in veterans with combat-related PTSD symptoms: evidence from self-report and pupillometry. Behavior Therapy, 52, 149-161. OSF
  • Armstrong, T., Stewart, J. S., Dalmaijer, E. S., Rowe, M., Bailey, B., *Engel, M., *Danielson, S., & Morris, M. J. (2020). I’ve seen enough! Both prolonged and repeated exposure increase oculomotor avoidance of disgusting stimuli. Emotion. Advance online publication. OSF  Postprint
  • Armstrong, T., *Reed, J., *Engel, M., *Press, T., & *Sonstroem, A. (2019). Fast-forwarding disgust conditioning: US pre-exposure facilitates the acquisition of oculomotor avoidance. Motivation and Emotion, 43, 681-695OSF 
  • Knowles, K. A., Cox, R. C., Armstrong, T., & Olatunji, B. O. (2019). Cognitive mechanisms of disgust in the development and maintenance of psychopathology: A qualitative review and synthesis. Clinical Psychology Review, 69, 30-50.
  • Armstrong, T., *Kelly, S., Beard, C., Rifkin, L.S., & Björgvinsson, T. (2017). Parsing the roles of anxiety and disgust sensitivity in borderline personality disorder in an acute heterogeneous treatment sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 119, 24-29.
  • Olatunji, B.O., Armstrong, T., Elwood, L. (2017). The role of disgust proneness in anxiety and related disorders: a qualitative review and meta-analysis of group comparison and correlational studies. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 613-648.
  • Armstrong, T., & Olatunji, B. O. (2017). Pavlovian disgust conditioning as a model for contamination-based OCD: Evidence from an analogue study. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 93, 78-87.
  • Rifkin, L.S., Schofield, C.A., Beard, C., & Armstrong, T. (2016). The development of fear beliefs through the verbal information pathway in preschool-age children. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 87, 34-39.
  • Olatunji, B. O., Armstrong, T., Bilsky, S., & Zhao, M. (2015). Threat modulation of visual search efficiency in PTSD: A comparison of distinct stimulus categories. Psychiatry Research, 3, 975–982.
  • Olatunji, B. O., Armstrong, T., & Ciesielski, B. C. (2015). Differential effects of emotional expressions and scenes on visual search. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 589-601.
  • Armstrong, T., McLenahan, L., Kittle, J., & Olatunji, B. O. (2014). Don’t look now! Oculomotor avoidance as a conditioned disgust response. Emotion, 14, 95-104.


Conference Presentations

  • Armstrong, T. (November 2016). Learning to look away: The acquisition of oculomotor avoidance and its relation to disgust sensitivity. In T. Armstrong (Chair), The role of disgust in psychopathology: New insights from contemporary learning theory. Symposium held at Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies annual conference, New York, NY.
  • Armstrong, T., Bouwman, H., Engel, M., Leiter, R., & Press, T. (May 2017). Oculomotor avoidance is specific to disgust, not fear, and resists habituation. Poster presented at the Association for Psychological Science annual conference: Boston, MA.
  • Armstrong, T., Engel, M., Press, T., Sonstroem, A., Luther, G. Turner, H. & Kelly, S. (April 2016). Conditioning disgust through spatial rather than temporal contiguity: validation of a new paradigm. Poster presented at the Western Psychological Association annual conference: Long Beach, CA.